Baba Banda Singh Bahadur was born on October 27, 1670, at village Rajouri in the Jammu state of India. His original name was Lachhman Dav. At the teenage, he left home and became a Bairagi. He took the name of Madho Das. He came to the Nashik on the Bank of Godavari in Maharashtra. There he took the discipline of a Yogi named Aughar Nath. After his death, he moved to Nanded and became famous for his magical and tantric powers.
Guru Gobind Singh visited Bairagi’s cottage in September 1708. The Bairagi tried magic powers on Guru. When he noticed the magic failed and fell at Guru’s feet. Said: “I am your banda, your slave”. Guru blessed him and baptized. He gave the name as Banda Singh. Hereafter, Banda Singh was no longer a Bairagi, become a Sikh and discipline of Guru Gobind Singh. Now he became a saint-soldier, ready to fight the tyrants.
Banda Singh learnt about the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev and Guru Tegh Bahadur. He also learnt about the cold-blooded murder of the Guru’s younger sons at Sarhind; about the hardship and suffering borne and the sacrifices made by the Guru; of wholesale persecution of millions of non-Muslims by the Mughals.
A Pathan stabbed Guru Gobind Singh. After that Bandha Singh requested to Guruji to allow to proceed to Punjab in order to punish them. He accepted his request.
Guru Gobind Singh appointed as commander of the Khalsa. He gave him the title of “Bahadur”, saying ‘In all that you do, you will always act as a brave saint-warrior’. Also gave him five arrows from his quiver as a pledge of victory, saying ‘If you ever find yourself in a hopeless situation, think of the Guru and God, and shoot one of these arrows, and you will get divine help and guidance. He bestowed on him a flag and a drum, saying, ‘They will serve as emblems of temporal authority’.
Further, a council of five Piarars was appointed to assist him. It consisted of Bhais Binod Singh, Kahan Singh, Baj Singh, Daya Singh and Ran Singh. The Guru also gave him Hukmnamas to Sikhs. After that Banda Singh called as their leader, and to fight under his banner.
Every Sikh is set aside one-tenth of his income for charitable and religious purpose and is called Daswandh. The amount was regularly remitted to the Guru’s treasury, either directly or through a Masand.
There were three classes of men who joined Banda Singh campaign. In the first class, comprised of faithful and loyal Sikhs. The second class consisted of paid soldiers. The third class was entirely composed of irregulars.
Banda Singh attacked and conquered all strongholds of Muslim oppression, like Samana, Kapuri, Sadhaura, and Chhat.
Banda Singh had become master of Punjab – east of Lahore, i.e. from Panipat to Lahore. He aimed to destroy the Mughal rule from the land altogether. He fixed the fort of Mukhlispur as his capital.
He abolished the Zamindari system of the Mughals. In its place, he introduced peasant proprietorship. The Zamindari system means villager should pay a fixed amount to the government as land-revenue or Land-lord.
In Delhi, near Qutub Minar, there stands a Gurudwara in his memory.